FORNOVO 1495 PDF

The battle of Fornovo (6 July ) was an unsuccessful attempt by an Italian army to stop Charles VIII of France during his retreat from Naples. Battle of Fornovo Charles VIII, attempting to seize control of southern Italy for use as a platform for war against the Ottoman Turks, lead the most. Nicolle, David. Fornovo France’s Bloody Fighting Retreat. Oxford: Osprey, Santosuosso, Antonio. ÔÇťAnatomy of Defeat: The Battle of Fornovo in

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The messenger, having scouted the troops, reported back to Charles.

But the Count of Caiazzo, thinking the outcome indecisive and expecting a battle on the following day, had sent messengers repeatedly to the city of Colorno near the Po, where his sister had assembled the luggage which was in the stronghold, so that if the battle went poorly for the Latins he could forovo her fornogo letter and she could at once put all these riches into a skiff readied for this purpose.

In the aftermath of the battle Charles knighted notable performers, including Pierre Terrail, seigneur de Bayardwho went on to become one of the most famous French commanders of the period.

The entire force was divided into nine lines, according to the French practice, the purpose being fodnovo harass the first and middle forrnovo of the French by two Italian lines in closer fighting, so that they could not forget the last group and turn back; the commander himself and his uncle along with Ranuccio Farnese would thus attack the rear of the enemy on both sides, and when that group had been scattered those in front would easily be thrown into confusion by the fugitives, and the other lines, standing in readiness, would at once carry out the commands given them.

The dead and even the wounded were looted by the victorious League infantry and then the local peasantry. The French enemy who has not spared divine and human affairs labors under scarcity and hunger, as is usual in a blockade; he is weary from many marches and steep passes; surrounded on all sides by the enemy and without hope of aid, he has been so wholly forsaken by divine fate that after failing to find an occasion for flight under the preferred guise of truce he is plunged into utter desperation at events and will seek safety by the sword and make a way for himself by force.

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In these he put his entire hope of safety and resolved not to await hunger longer, but to undergo the risk of battle. Beneditti was a physician working for the Venetian forces and started his diary in Mayand a month later, was an eyewitness to this battle. Nonetheless the Frenchman was filled with anxiety when he learned from spies that contrary to expectation the army of the Venetians had been assembled with tremendous speed and was increasing in numbers daily.

Their fleet was captured at Rapallo, and the loot taken from Naples was lost, while the Duke of Orleans was forced to surrender at Novara before a relief army could arrive. The French had lost their treasure, all the plunder of Italy, and they moved on to Asti with a haste that appeared very close to flight. The second was composed of Italian mailed horsemen under Ranuccio Farnese and Luigi Avogadro; the third, a phalanx of infantry, numbered four thousand, with Gorlino of Ravenna and other leaders in charge.

Many fell, rolling in the muddy ditch, others did not cross the river, and some slid from the slippery rampart into the mire.

Battle of Fornovo – Wikipedia

Italy was to be the scene of a dispute between the main continental powers, with the result that the Italians were left with only a secondary role in their own destiny. In that battle countless baggage piles of the French, abounding in all riches, were lost; in dornovo was found a great weight of silver and gold.

We thank the Renaissance Society of Foornovo for their permission to republish this item. Francesco Gonzaga divided his forces into nine lines. Meanwhile the King drew up three enormous battle groups. Retrieved 20 March A few of the Greeks fought, and among them Pietro Busichio and Niccolo of Nin were wounded; the rest plundered the baggage train. Renaissance Society of America, On 20 May Charles left Naples leaving behind a garrison to hold the country and proclaiming that he only desired a safe return to France.

Tactical French victory; [1] Strategic Italian victory; the French were unable to intervene in force in Italy for a number of years.

The French rested for the rest forovo the day, then marched north during the night, reaching the relative safety of Asti on 15 July joining up with other French troops.

A lesser number of Venetians pursued the French who were finally yielding, and the latter straightway went off hastily to the hill opposite the camp of the Venetians, and at last, when fornovi fighting had broken off of itself, the Latins returned to the lines of their allies, and then all betook themselves to camp.

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At the end of August Charles VIII led a powerful French army with a large contingent of Swiss mercenaries and the first train of artillery seen in history into Italy. Others were cramped by the narrow quarters and tried in vain to carry out their orders. Views Read Edit View history. Medici-ruled Florence fell quickly, and the French helped with the restoration of Republican government.

The League was quickly able to raise a powerful army in the north of Italy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. forbovo

This part of the League Army was funded by Venice, and included a significant number of stradiotilight cavalry from Albania. Then Rodolfo, though covered with blood, also encouraged the cavalry and infantry to fight and called upon the fornvoo in the name of their ancient courage.

Count Antonio of Urbino, leader of one line, failed to advance because of the difficulties of the terrain.

Battle of Fornovo, 1495

The line over which Giovanni Francesco of Caiazzo had command was scattered by fear of missiles rather than by actual carnage. On 4 July the French reached the village of Fornovo and found their passage blocked by the main League army camped just north of the village.

In addition to those I have mentioned the following were captured: However, the vast Venetian lines fprnovo stood immovable beyond the reach of the weapons, as if waiting for commands, struck fear into the French. The commander Francesco Gonzaga, standing out above the others on a fresh horse, pulled his soldiers together again, and with a selected group pursued the enemy frnovo killing a number of them, and pressing on with greater effort he captured the Bourbon bastard of royal blood and Marshal Miolans; other noble soldiers were taken by the Venetians and many were killed.

On 5 July Charles attempted to negotiation his way past the League Army, but his efforts failed.